Name: Brittny Ludwig
Student No: 8570809
Tutor: Michelle Newcomb


ABUSED KIDS MORE LIKELY TO TURN TO CRIME



THE ARTEFACT










The following artefact shows a video entitled 'Children See. Children Do' it follows a group of children following exactly what their parents are doing. In one scene a child is following her mother up the escalator and because her mother is smoking so is she. Another scene goes to show a mother stumbling drunk on a pathway followed by her child. And probably the most powerful scene of all when a father is beating up his wife and their child see's this and starts to beat her too. This video then depicts a whole different range of scenarios, where parents are doing bad things and their children are following. Going to show how much influence parents have on their child.


PUBLIC HEALTH ISSUE
Childhood abuse and neglect is one of the most contributing factors into creating future criminals. Abuse, sexual assault and neglect are all trauma that can have large effects on young children's views of society and what's right and wrong. According to the Australian Government between 2010-2012 around 39,000 children received some sort of child abuse either by a family member or a stranger. (AIHW. 2012)


LITERATURE REVIEW
The topic of whether criminals are born or made has been a controversial issue for some time now. Though the answer to that is not yet determined and each person has a different opinion about the issue, there are some lifestyle factors that begin in childhood that may lead to crime. These factors include biological and social influences and are often associated and are the leading cause for children to behave as deviants. ( Currie, J .2012) We need to acknowledged the importance of specific environmental pressures influencing the way in which children grow up to be killers.

As a child if you are to experience any sort of abuse whether it be verbal, physical, mental or sexual it increases the opportunities into becoming a criminal. Child abuse is currently one of the biggest social problems in the world, with over 40 million children under the age of 15 saying that they have been abused by a stranger or family member, (Hopper, J. 2012) Dr. Jim Hopper a psychiatrist of Harvard Medical School says that childhood is extremely important as it can effect a child's adulthood immensely.

If 40 million children are being abused that can then lay the ground work for 40 million criminals. Though in saying that there are children born who received no form of abuse and still become criminals, but that is the minority. As a child if you are to receive abuse from a family member you are more likely to keep quiet in fear of it happening again and unfortunately become accustomed to that way of lifestyle even thinking that it is normal to beat your children. (Finkehlor. D. 2009) Most victims of child miss- treatment also become abusers themselves, causing this unfortunate circle of abuse. (Stein, A. 2009) As study has now previously shown there is substantial evidence that can connect child abuse to a criminal or killer in there adulthood.

If you look at any criminal background there is a high chance you will find some sort of childhood abuse and maltreatment. According to the World Health organization around 65% of criminals witnessed a murder during childhood, 40% received stranger and family sexual abuse and 75% were abused as children. (World Health Organization. 2010). Researchers say that 36,000 of the 900,000 children abused will become violent criminals when they reach adulthood, including 250 who will become murderers (Currie, J .2012). Just by looking at some of these statistics you can tell that childhood trauma has a large impact on criminals.

Coming back to the biological factors we mentioned earlier, children of abuse can often have physical or neurological disorders. For example in the imbalance in neurotransmitters and hormonal disorders in the brain damages due to physical abuses and head injuries. Another important biological trait is temperament. (Cima, M. 2007) A temperament is a genetically based expression of human needs and emotions, different types of temperament lead to different types of children, through this is more prone to children who have been abused. Abused children also grow up to be non-social and have difficulties in learning social skills. These biological factors when placed into a dysfunctional social setting can shape criminal personalities for examples psychopaths. Poor academic performances, drug abuse, high school dropouts and rejection by peers, all correlate to crime and more than 25 % of current inmates are diagnosed with ADHD.( Sterzer, P. 2010) A common trait in a psychopath is that of animal cruelty, the child would often take out the anger he had of the abuser on animals, a study showed that 60% of serial killers performed some sort of animal cruelty whilst an adolescent. This type of criminal as a child also shows signs of lack of empathy, and were often bullied. (Sterzer, P. 2010) Once again this goes to show that once again children who are exposed to aggressive behavior are more likely to engage in criminal behavior.

The unfortunate thing is that any sort of abuse is usually hidden, with no one to intervene or stop it especially when its performed by a parent. The child is often too scared to speak out along with the other family members. As an outsider we have no control on what goes on inside a child's home. Certain types of punishment may be placed upon the child because of what a parent may believe is 'wrong'. Once again inflicting these type of behaviors onto your child will do them more harm them good and has a high effect on their future criminal behaviors. A recommendation that could be suggested would be to make the parents aware that what they can do to their children can have large effects of their child's adulthood. There needs to be more awareness on how to treat children and what a parent may think is 'punishment' can be abuse.

CULTURAL AND SOCIAL ANALYSIS
Evidence suggests that children who live in an unstable home environment, are one of many siblings, parents have an addiction problem are the ones who will suffer the most kind of abuse especially physical and verbal harm. Most of these children also come out of school with a low educational level and live in a low socioeconomic background and earn little income. (World Health Organization.2010)

As a whole 52% of child abuse victims are female and 48% are male. Though on average there was equal numbers on sexual abuse for both genders (Australian Government. 2012). Between 2010-2011 there was 237,273 reports made for child abuse and neglect in all Australian states and territories (Australian Government. 2012). As evidence can suggest child abuse isn't subjected to one certain race or gender, its sadly inflected on everyone.

Awareness towards child abuse and maltreatment is a very serious issue. As earlier evidence suggest your experiences as an adolescent have great influence on your adult life. Your childhood shapes the person you will later become and your perspective over society and views on life, especially with what is right and wrong.

I believe public awareness is very important in this issue, you may not know what you have done to your child mentally and physically until it is too late. There needs to be some sort of community awareness program, especially in areas where crime levels are high. It is here where parents may need to reflect and think about their actions and choices towards their children. It needs to be publicized that child maltreatment is not only a serious offense it has detrimental effects to your child's future.

ANALYSIS IF ARTEFACT
The artefact shows what effect parents really have on their children. The video show a group of children and parents and each child is copying exactly what their parents are doing. This video goes to show the impact parents have on children during childhood. What they do to their children and what they see deeply effects their adulthood.
This is a powerful video as it makes people, especially parents stop and think about what behaviors they may have and how it effects their child. It evokes those personal thoughts and feels whilst watching and makes you realize your bad habits, a child can pick up.

REFLECTION
In this assignment I have learned just how much parents can affect the way we grow up and the type of person we turn out to be. Now that I understand how much parental influence can stay with you and an adult, the way you treat your child can lead to different adult outcomes.

REFERENCE LIST
Australian Government. (2012) Australian Institute of Family Studies. Retrieved from http://www.aifs.gov.au/cfca/pubs/factsheets/a142086/index.html.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2012). //Child protection Australia 2010-11//. Canberra: AIHW. Retrieved from <www.aihw.gov.au/publication-detail/?id=10737421016>.

Cima, M. (2007). Victims of our brain: born or made a criminal? Netherlands Journal of Psychology, 63(4), 102-106

Currie, J (2012). Does Child Abuse Cause Crime?. National Bureau of Economic Research, Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/digest/jan07/w12171.html

Finkehlor. D. (2009) Violence, Abuse and Crime Exposure. Retrieved From http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/124/5/1411

Hopper, J. (2012). Child Abuse, Statistics, Research and Resources, Retrieved from http://www.jimhopper.com/abstats/

J Garbarino. (1997). Understanding Abusive Families. 62(4), 201-207

Kathy, R. (2006) Childhood abuse can impact Adult Victims Relationships. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/10/061025185636.htm

Stein, A. (2009). From Their Cradle To Your Grave: How Child Abuse and Dissociation Drive Violent Crime. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezp01.library.qut.edu.au/docview/203931047/citation?accountid=13380

Sterzer, P. (2010). Born to Be Criminal? What to Make of Early Biological Risk Factors for Criminal Behavior. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 167(1), 1-3.

Sterzer, P. (2010)How Child Abuse primes the Brain for future Mental illness. Retrieved from http://healthland.time.com/2012/02/15/how-child-abuse-primes-the-brain-for-future-mental-illness/

World Health Organization. (2010) Child Maltreatment, Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs150/en/