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Monday, October 13

Sunday, September 21

  1. page 'The Great Wall of Vagina - Changing Female Body Image Through Art' edited Tutor: Julie-Anne Carrol The Great Wall of Vagina is an art piece created by British artist Jamie…
    Tutor: Julie-Anne Carrol
    The Great Wall of Vagina is an art piece created by British artist Jamie McCartney. The artwork depicts sculptures of 400 different vaginas. It is 9 metres long, distributed across ten large panels, and consists of 400 plaster cuts of vulvas. Included are genitals of mothers and daughters, identical twins, transgendered men and women, pre and post natal, pre and post labiaplasty. McCartney designed this artwork with the hope that it will help combat the rise in cosmetic labial surgeries. In this artwork, something that is usually associated with pornography becomes non-erotic; simply art with a social conscience (Great Wall of Vagina, 2012).
    http://www.greatwallofvagina.co.uk/home
    PUBLIC HEALTH ISSUE
    The public health issue that can be reflected through the ‘Great Wall of Vagina’ is body image. The need of labiaplasty surgery stems from misconceptions of what a ‘normal’ vagina is. The fashion of creating a ‘prefect’ vagina is a worrying trend, encouraged by pornography and media outlets, who manufacture an unrealistic ideal in relation to female genitals. The pornographic industries effect on the perception of vaginal normality is a reflection of the media industries role in developing unrealistic stereotypes of general beauty and perfection, specifically in regards to body. Thus highlighting the public health issue of body image created by a culture consumed with stereotypical beauty images portrayed in the media.
    LITERATURE REVIEW
    Body image relates to how a person thinks about their own body and how they believe others see their body. Four different facets are exemplified regarding body image: perceptual, affective, cognitive and behavioural. Perceptually, how one sees their body is not an accurate reflection of how their body actually looks. Affective body image refers to the amount of satisfaction or dissatisfaction that one feels about their general appearance. The cognitive aspect is the feeling about one’s body in regards to certain thoughts or beliefs. Behaviourally, body dissatisfaction may lead to a person avoiding certain activities that may evoke body image concerns (What is Body Image?, n.d.).
    The body image information paper (Office for Youth, 2009) indicated that :
    70-76% of Australian high school girls consistently chose an ideal figure that they wish to have that is thinner then their own
    Over 50% have Australia high school girls have tried to lose weight and only 16% are happy with their body weight.
    At least 20% of women who are underweight think they are overweight and are dieting
    Less than 25% of Australian women are satisfied with their weight
    Other studies have indicated that 45% of women in the healthy weight range believe they are overweight (Better Health Channel, n.d.). In Australians aged 11-24, 35% of females reported that they were unsatisfied with their appearance. The Australian National Survey revealed that body image was identified as the number one concern for 29000 males and female. Beyond stereotypes, the 2005 study commissioned by Dove, surveyed 3 300 girls and women between the ages 15 and 64 in ten countries and found that 67% of all woman between 15 to 64 withdrew from life-engaging activities due to feeling badly about their looks (Eating Disorders Victoria, 2012). A 2007 Sydney University study of almost 9000 adolescents found that one if five teenage girls starved themselves or vomit up their food to control weight, while eight percent smoked to control their weight (O’Dea, 2007) These statistics displaying the nature of body image among females are argument for the need of public health initiatives to redress the issue.
    Positive body image does not only affect how one feels about their body but also plays a vital role in the development of self-esteem, self-acceptance and healthy attitudes towards food and eating i.e. psychological and physical health development. Self Esteem affects our behaviours; people with positive self-esteem are more confident in who they are and what they do. Those with positive body images are also less sensitive to pressure within cultures to conform to unrealistic beauty ideals (Why is body image important?, n.d.). Furthermore, such pressures associated with body dissatisfaction have been linked to other mental health issues, namely depression, and anxiety (Paxton, 2002). Finally, negative body image can lead to unhealthy and harmful eating habits as people restrict their food intake to lose weight, with food inevitably becoming the enemy (Why is body image important?, n.d.). The negative implications associated with poor body image and the apparent benefits of healthy body image are case in point for the importance of addressing the issue.
    Research indicates that exposure the ‘thin ideal’ manufactured by the media has an adverse effect on women’s self evaluations and eating related attitudes (Mask & Blanchard, 2011). When women were assigned different media exposures, with the presence or absence of an attractive person (fashion model) and/or appearance related products, it was found that main effect on levels of body dissatisfaction stemmed from the presence of the model (Birkeland et al., 2005). More alarmingly it has been found that even if a woman directs little attention to media images, daily exposure to media influences still has a subtle impact on automatic processing of stimuli (Watts & Cranney & Gleitzman, 2008).
    Based on evidence examined from their National survey of young Australian in 2007, Mission Australia stated that there is a need for a multi-layered responses that would involve many organisations and individuals, including families, schools, governments, community organisations and the advertising and media industries to redress the issue (Office for Youth, 2009).
    The government has highlighted two key areas to focus effort: Industry and popular culture as well as individuals and their immediate social environment. Five hundred thousand dollars in funding has be assigned to support new initiatives supporting body image in young Australia. These initiative aims to build young people resilience to negative body image pressures whilst promoting leadership and positive culture change on the issue in the fashion, media and advertising industries.
    {Screen shot 2012-11-04 at 6.20.35 PM.png}
    (Ellis, n.d.)
    Targeted interventions seem to be the most effective way of redressing negative body image. This can be perceived as a limitation given that an individual must first develop negative body issue, and the associated distresses, before an attempt is made to eradicate the problem (Paxton, 2002). Also it is hard to gain complete understanding regarding the issue given that women who display high social physique anxiety are most likely to feel uncomfortable talking about their body-related experiences, due to their concern for how others see their bodies (Kerr & Faulkner & Gammage & Klentrou, 2012).
    Initiatives regarding changing the way the media industry operates are encouraging, however it must be noted that the code simply provides guiding principles and goals but cannot entirely change the ideals set forth by media outlets.
    CULTURAL AND SOCIAL ANALYSIS
    Body image is largely determined by social influences. The way in which a person develops their self image is influenced by friends and family, information from the media (particularly images) and individual personality traits. People more susceptible to negative body image associations include those that seek perfection, are highly impressionable, those with a tendency to compare themselves to others, age (adolescents), BMI and weight, and culture. Gender also plays a large role (What Causes Negative Body Issues, n.d.).
    Feminists and social scientists have long argued that the pressure women feel to be attractive is manufactured by cultural influences. Culture has the power to dramatically shape attractiveness preferences with excessive emphasis on female beauty existing predominantly in the west (Anderson et al., 2008).
    This pressure to be beautiful can most definitely be felt in Australia, with 44.2% of people that speak English at home listing body image as one of their leading concerns. It is interesting to note there was a significant decrease in this number among non-English speaking background households with only 34.7% listing body image as a leading concern (Mission Australia, 2012).
    Changes in societal ideals of beauty are reflected in mass media. The changing face of beauty can be seen in images produced of pinup girls, magazine models, Hollywood stars and even playboy centrefolds throughout the last century.
    Western culture has touted a range of body types as ideal:
    1890s – ‘Gibson Girl’: slender athletic frame accompanied by larger breasts and hips
    1920s - the Victoria era curve less and almost boyish figures
    1930s and 40’s – ‘Petty Girl’: slim lower body and flat abdomen.
    1950’s – ‘Hour Glass Figure’: curves accentuating a woman’s breasts and hips made a return
    1960’s - thinner fashion icons
    1970s - strict guidelines for weight and shape were relaxed. Ideal was slightly curvaceous yet still slender
    1980s – introduction of curves accompanied by well developed musculature
    1990s - supermodels with lean muscular figures and feminie curves
    (Sarwer & Grossbard & Didie, 2003)
    The new millennium has seen a reintroduction of excessively skinny models in mass media (Arciszewski & Berjot & Finez, 2012).
    As displayed, the underlying issues associated with the negative body image are closely related to media and the images, which they produce to influence our perception of beauty. Attempts should be made to create a more realistic ideal of beauty in the media; however, it may be difficult for the public health sector to entirely persuade such a shallow industry. To combat this limitation it would be wise to continue the development of initiatives that build personal resistance to negative body image. Furthermore positive body image should be promoted at an early age, which can be done by providing adolescents different ways of thinking about ideals, beauty, and attractiveness (Holmqvist & Frisen, 2012).
    Positive body image enables on the freedom to develop richer experience in all areas of life; one can expand themselves mentally and physically, gain more friendships and independence, and develop talents (Why is body image important?, n.d.). So it can be seen that the promotion of healthy body image is imperative for the finest quality of life.
    ANALYSIS OF THE ARTEFACT AND YOUR OWN LEARNING REFLECTIONS
    This artefact represents the diverse beauty which accompanies the female gender. The exhibit displays 400 different vaginas, all different, all unique. One vagina is not displayed as superior to another. Instead, the notion of normality and self-acceptance is illuminated through the concept of variety in the display. This aligns perfectly with the subject of body image. The artwork displays that no two vaginas are the same, just as no two bodies are. It reinforces the message that we do not need to conform to what media has dictated to us as ‘normal’. The varied range of vulvas, of normal women, displayed creates the feeling of normality in what would usually be perceived as ‘abnormal’ due to media influences.
    In future learning and thinking processes, I hope that I will continue to develop my critical thinking skills and not just interpret information at a basic level. Instead I hope to recognise the deeper lying issues and determinants of different topics.
    REFERENCES
    Arciszewski, T., Berjot, S., & Finez, L. (2012). Threat of the thin-ideal body image and body malleability beliefs: Effects on body image self-discrepancies and behavioral intentions.Body Image,9(3), 334-341. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2012.04.007
    Australian Government. (n.d.). What is body image? [Information Sheet]. n.p.: Commonwealth of Australia http://www.youth.gov.au/bodyImage/informationsheets/Documents/BodyImageFactsheets_webaw1.pdf
    Australian Government. (n.d.). Why is body image important? [Information Sheet] n.p.: Commonwealth of Australia http://www.youth.gov.au/bodyImage/informationsheets/Documents/BodyImageFactsheets_webaw3.pdf
    Birkeland, R., Thompson, J. K., Herbozo, S., Roehrig, M., Cafri, G., & van den Berg, P. (2005). Media exposure, mood, and body image dissatisfaction: An experimental test of person versus product priming.Body Image,2(1), 53-61. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2004.11.002
    Better Health Channel. (n.d.). Body Image and Diets [Fact Sheet]. Melbourne, Vic.: State of Victoria. Retrieved from http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcpdf.nsf/ByPDF/Body_image_and_diets/$File/Body_image_and_diets.pdf
    Body Image and Health Inc. and Psychology Department, University of Melbourne. (2002). Research review of body image programs: an Overview of body image dissatisfaction prevention interventions. Retrieved from Victorian Government Health Website http://www.health.vic.gov.au/healthpromotion/downloads/research_review.pdf
    David B. Sarwer, Ted A. Grossbart, Elizabeth R. Didie. (2003). Beauty and Society. Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery, 22(2), 79-92. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1085562903800111
    Eating Disorders Victoria. (2012). Key research and statistics. Retrieved from http://www.eatingdisorders.org.au/working-with-the-media/key-research-a-statistics
    Ellis, K. (n.d.). Promoting positive body image: a statement by the Hon Kate Ellis MP, Minister for Youth [Statement] n.p.: Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved from http://www.youth.gov.au/bodyImage/actiononbodyimage/Documents/Ellis_Response_Body_Image_Advisory_Group_20100627.pdf
    Gottschall, J., & Kacey Anderson, Chad Burbank, Jasper Burch, Chelsea Byrnes, Christine Callanan, Nicole Casamento, Amy Gardiner, Natalie Gladd, Allison Hartnett, Elisabeth Henry, Eloise Hilarides, Chelsea Lemke, Kristen Manganini, Sara Merrihew, Tonya Milan-Robinson, Patrick O’Connell, Jessica Mott, Kimberly Parker, Karlin Revoir, Nathan Riley, Darcie Robinson, Sheila Rodriguez, Chelsea Sauve, April Spearance, Valerie Stucker, Adam Tapply, Alexa Unser, Christopher Wall, Alexis Webb, and Melinda Zocco. (2008). The “Beauty myth” is no myth: Emphasis on male-female attractiveness in world folktales.Human Nature,19(2), 174-188. doi: 10.1007/s12110-008-9035-3
    Holmqvist, K., & Frisén, A. (2012). "I bet they aren't that perfect in reality:" appearance ideals viewed from the perspective of adolescents with a positive body image.Body Image,9(3), 388. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2012.03.007
    Lamarche, L., Kerr, G., Faulkner, G., Gammage, K. L., & Klentrou, P. (2012). A qualitative examination of body image threats using social self-preservation theory.Body Image,9(1), 145. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2011.10.004
    Mask, L., & Blanchard, C. M. (2011). The effects of "thin ideal" media on women's body image concerns and eating-related intentions: The beneficial role of an autonomous regulation of eating behaviors.Body Image,8(4), 357-365. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2011.06.003
    Mission Australia. (2012). Reportfinds body image concerns among young people differ between cultures. Retrieved from
    http://www.missionaustralia.com.au/daily-news/2668-report-finds-body-image-concerns-among-young-women-differ-between-cultures
    O'Dea, J., & Informit. (2007).Everybody's different: A positive approach to teaching about health, puberty, body image, nutrition, self-esteem and obesity prevention. Portland: International Specialized Book Services [Distributor].
    Office of Youth, Australian Government (2009). Body Image Information Paper. Retrieved from the Australian Government youth website http://www.youth.gov.au/bodyImage/Documents/Body_image_information_paper.pdf
    The Great Wall of Vagina. (2012). About. Retrieved from http://www.greatwallofvagina.co.uk/home
    Watts, K., Cranney, J., & Gleitzman, M. (2008). Automatic evaluation of body-related images.Body Image,5(4), 352-364. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2008.06.001

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    6:05 pm

Sunday, October 20

  1. page Youth Violence edited Name: Fun Zhengqiu/ ZQ/ S/N: 08019011/ 8536980/ Tutor: Steve The Alienation and Radicalisati…
    Name: Fun Zhengqiu/ZQ/ S/N: 08019011/8536980/ Tutor: Steve
    The Alienation and Radicalisation of the Young:
    Should We Blame the Kid, Family or the Society?
    ...
    Analysis of the Artefact and Learning Reflections
    ‘Health, culture and society’ have allowed me to see the artefact as a depiction of two victims – Robbie and the perpetrator. The latter is a victim of the social and cultural environment. There are too many questions about the perpetrator that remains unanswered by the media. For example, his academic performance, financial situation at home, the social relationships and contact with abusive behaviours that could be gathered via interviews with his teachers and/ or classmates. It also makes one wonder why the family and their responses were not included in the broadcasted news. Possibly, this is done to protect their identity from public attacks as their child’s act is deemed tremendously cruel and thereby likely to evoke extreme rage.
    ...
    these officials.
    Simply isolating offenders in prisons away from the general community is not the best solution in long-term. Although upstream factors may not be within our control, at the community-level, I believe that everyone has a role to play in the solution and should acknowledge that crime is every individual’s problem. Education not only fulfils the academic aspect but it also imparts skills in social interaction, moral reasoning and the need exercise cultural sensitivity while adopting different social lenses to view a situation. Most importantly, we get to learn the importance to evaluate the source of information details and analyse the whole issue in the most objective manner possible. Promoting a culture of ‘standing up against violence’ in school will not only provide students a secure environment for learning, it will also allow the young to cultivate a sense of righteousness, courage, and most importantly, taking up the responsibility in caring for the people around them. This will avoid developing a society that tilts towards self-centeredness, greed and power-seeking.
    See also
    ...
    World Health Organisation. (2012a). Violence. Retrieved October 19, 2012, http://www.who.int/topics/violence/en/
    World Health Organisaton. (2012b). Violence and Injury Prevention: Youth Violence. Retrieved October 19, 2012, http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/youth/en/index.html

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    6:03 pm

Sunday, October 13

Friday, July 26

Friday, April 19

  1. page Baby Gone Bad... Patterns and Trends edited Goodies versus Baddies: Are criminals born or made, and should we put them in jail? Name: Bryce Ho…
    Goodies versus Baddies: Are criminals born or made, and should we put them in jail?
    Name: Bryce Howell
    Student Number: n8543615
    Tutor: Michelle Cornford
    {Good_vs_Evil_Vines_by_plasmablaster.jpg}
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    2:29 am

Sunday, December 30

  1. page 'The Great Wall of Vagina - Changing Female Body Image Through Art' edited ... ANALYSIS OF THE ARTEFACT AND YOUR OWN LEARNING REFLECTIONS This artefact represents the diver…
    ...
    ANALYSIS OF THE ARTEFACT AND YOUR OWN LEARNING REFLECTIONS
    This artefact represents the diverse beauty which accompanies the female gender. The exhibit displays 400 different vaginas, all different, all unique. One vagina is not displayed as superior to another. Instead, the notion of normality and self-acceptance is illuminated through the concept of variety in the display. This aligns perfectly with the subject of body image. The artwork displays that no two vaginas are the same, just as no two bodies are. It reinforces the message that we do not need to conform to what media has dictated to us as ‘normal’. The varied range of vulvas, of normal women, displayed creates the feeling of normality in what would usually be perceived as ‘abnormal’ due to media influences.
    Having dealt with body image issues myself, regarding weight, I could really relate to the message of this artwork. Through the depiction of hundreds of different vulvas I was reminded that while I may not look like the ‘perfect’ women displayed in magazines, I am, in my own right, fine just as I am.
    This assessment has taught me a lot about structure and agency. While we may think we act on our own accord, there are forces everywhere dictating to us what we perceive to be right or wrong, normal or different.

    In future learning and thinking processes, I hope that I will continue to develop my critical thinking skills and not just interpret information at a basic level. Instead I hope to recognise the deeper lying issues and determinants of different topics.
    REFERENCES
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    10:28 pm
  2. page 'The Great Wall of Vagina - Changing Female Body Image Through Art' edited Tutor: Julie-Anne Carroll {The Great Wall of Vagina .jpeg} {Panel 5.jpeg} Carrol The Great W…
    Tutor: Julie-Anne Carroll
    {The Great Wall of Vagina .jpeg} {Panel 5.jpeg}
    Carrol
    The Great Wall of Vagina is an art piece created by British artist Jamie McCartney. The artwork depicts sculptures of 400 different vaginas. It is 9 metres long, distributed across ten large panels, and consists of 400 plaster cuts of vulvas. Included are genitals of mothers and daughters, identical twins, transgendered men and women, pre and post natal, pre and post labiaplasty. McCartney designed this artwork with the hope that it will help combat the rise in cosmetic labial surgeries. In this artwork, something that is usually associated with pornography becomes non-erotic; simply art with a social conscience (Great Wall of Vagina, 2012).
    http://www.greatwallofvagina.co.uk/home
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    10:21 pm
  3. page 'The Great Wall of Vagina - Changing Female Body Image Through Art' edited Tutor: Julie-Anne Carroll CULTURAL ARTEFACT - THE GRAT WALL OF VAGINA {The Great Wall of Vagina…
    Tutor: Julie-Anne Carroll
    CULTURAL ARTEFACT - THE GRAT WALL OF VAGINA
    {The Great Wall of Vagina .jpeg} {Panel 5.jpeg}
    The Great Wall of Vagina is an art piece created by British artist Jamie McCartney. The artwork depicts sculptures of 400 different vaginas. It is 9 metres long, distributed across ten large panels, and consists of 400 plaster cuts of vulvas. Included are genitals of mothers and daughters, identical twins, transgendered men and women, pre and post natal, pre and post labiaplasty. McCartney designed this artwork with the hope that it will help combat the rise in cosmetic labial surgeries. In this artwork, something that is usually associated with pornography becomes non-erotic; simply art with a social conscience (Great Wall of Vagina, 2012).
    (view changes)
    10:12 pm

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